Solar PV

Top Ten Solar PV Panels 2021

The most efficient solar panels available in 2021 use the high purity N-type IBC cells manufactured by SunPower and LG. REC recently released the Alpha series using high performance HJT N-type cells which boosted efficiency close to the level of IBC cells. As highlighted in the table below, most other manufacturers have moved from standard mono cells to the more efficient half-cut mono PERC cells. Additionally, new generation modules featuring multi-busbar (MBB) half-cut cells from Longi Solar, Solaria, Trina, Jinko, Canadian and Hyundai have increased panel efficiency well above 20%.

Latest News (14th April 2021)

Well... It's (it has) been a very interesting week or two!

I've been Hyper-Pro-active in seeking urgent action on addressing The Power Production Problems that are confronting the World now and into the immediate and medium term future.

In the process, I became aware of, and have found a lot of information about, a Really Crazy idea... But a Fantastic Dream that just might work!

But, whatever, will certainly be a great Money Spinner and that's something that is really needed at all times!

I ran a few numbers based on Information I found, and, with a few reasonable guesses, I came close to the Published Targets for area and Power delivery Figures.

Wow!... That's a big Improvement on a few other Renewable Energy Projects that I've looked at recently!

I'm still not a Capitalist, and Frown a bit on The Fact that Private Capital only really Likes to "Invest" ("Bet") on


Without Governments Investing for National Development, Our Nation would still be using Shank's Pony for Transport!... and we wouldn't have The Coal Fired Power Stations that have lifted us out of Poverty. Sure we know now, the problems that they have also created, but, that's life isn't it...

It's a Pity that Humanity tends to turn Tools into ever more Powerful Weapons!... That also is Life!

Politicians are Never... In Normal Situations; Leaders!... Everything they do is based on one point of view!... Will the Electorate agree with this?... Will it be Popular?... That's It!...

Unless of course War is Declared!...

Then all Hell breaks Loose, and Anything Goes! Good or Bad!... Cost?... What's that?... It's certainly not a Problem!

I'm just wondering how long it's going to take before The Clowns That Strut their Stuff in The Hallowed Halls and Chambers of Parliaments will finally see that Climate Change is now happening so quickly that without a doubt, before another 5 years have gone by, even being able to build anything at all, will be so difficult that Heroes will be needed to even go outside!!

We have the opportunity, Still: To Really Start... "Looking at Investing in Projects that do something Other than Just Spin Money around in the Community!"... We Need Long Lived Power Projects: Projects that will provide Energy from Fuels with a bit more OOOMPH in them than 128.3 Watts per sq. metre (at Ground Level, on an average Day, when placed in a Good, Sunny Location, with at Least 60% Clear Skies; all year Round!... Deserts are usually good; Tropical Locations Not so! Tropical Rain and Cyclones are a Problem! Ever increasing Wind Speeds tend to Lift flat inclined Surfaces, like Solar Panels Off Their Structures! and who knows what the Wind Speed in a cyclone will be at any instant in 5, 10 or 50 years time?... (Want to Bet on that?)...

They are Good, they are Great, they are Clean!... But Will They Provide THE POWER REQUIRED to Replace Coal and Oil? And... As for dismantling Nuclear?.... Well That is Particularly Insane!... It was a Great Idea to Try and Prevent The Military Industrial Complex from building More and More Nuclear Weapons!...

But as far as "Helping with the Solution to Climate Change?.... Yeah!... Dismantle them!... That is a Really Clever Idea!!

Amazing!... With that sort of "Brain Power" at work, we will assuredly Stop our Emissions of CO2, SO2, CH4 and Definitely provide Heaps of Excess Power to Charge all The Batteries in the Transport Industry, once Powered by Gasoline, but now, Soon!; to be Powered by The 1361 watts/sq.m.... Oooops sorry That figure is for the Top of The Atmospherel..... At Ground Level its about 1050 watts/sq.m , and then with Clouds and atmosphere and dust and varying angles of Incidence on the Panels , and then the actual inbuilt Efficiency of the Solar Cells at about 20 % - 22% for the best... And, actually, we are looking at only, on The Yearly average of 12 Hours of Potential Sunlight... And with climate Change the "Clear sky % per Day", is also going to Reduce... DRASTICALLY!... Yep!... Solar PV at 1540 per average 12 hour day.... That's DEFINITELY The way to Go!...

Thorium - LFTR?.... YEAH!.... What is that?????

22061000000 , or;
When Converted to Electric Power Continuous All Year (24hrs/per Day (not 12hrs (max)/Day), and 365 Days a Year!... Not 7 Months of The Year at maybe 60% From a clear Sky etc... giving, for the Solar Panel....

TOTAL!!!... for an "Average" 12 hr Day... !!!

Yeah!... It makes Great "Common Sense" ... Go Solar PV and Wind! ... 

Nuclear...  The Thorium - LFTR... OR!... Even, (Perish The Thought!), Common and Garden Traditional Nuclear That has Killed Less People from all the 70 Yrs. of use, than Coal, Oil and Gas Kill in ONE YEAR!!!

Yeah!... Close Nuclear... Build Electric Cars... and Elon Musk Batteries!... and charge them all up with Wind Mills!!... Way to Go!...

Oh! Yeah!... While I'm Still Raving!...

Thorium is a By Product currently Produced in China (Mainly!), as a Benefit from the Sluicing of Mountain sides containing Ionic Clay Deposits


Extracted via Acid (Nitrate/Nitric) Wash

This method of spraying high-pressure Nitrate Acid streams at hillsides containing the ionic clays and soaking the clays with acids to extract the Rare earths [this could only be economic in China because of the enormous environmental damage it causes]. 

Acid run off is collected in sluices and further digested in separation facilities where the initial separations are fully refined in cascade chains of ‘Cameras’ or centrifuges

....  All in the process of obtaining The Rare Earth Elements that are Used in all our Wonderful Smart Phones and High Tech Electronics for Avionics and Communications... Communications requiring Data Storage, Requiring ever growing amounts of Power to Power The Data Storage Facilities provided by more and More windmills and Solar PV Panels!.... Ironic!

I will Post The Calcs I've Done to Check The Really Great - Northern Territory "Cable Link" Solar PV & HVDC 

Undersea Transmission Scheme to Power "SINGAPORE" 

This Picture is a Copy For Educational Purposes of a Picture Supplied by The Proposers of The Scheme - Public on The Web for the same Purpose - Education and Promotion.

Ref: “Climate change in the Northern  Territory: State of the science and climate change impacts”

“Climate change in the Northern  Territory: State of the science and climate change impacts” is licensed  by CSIRO for use under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Australia  licence.

For licence conditions see:-


The report is available for download from the Earth Systems and Climate Change Hub website at

The ESCC  Hub is committed to providing web accessible content wherever possible.

Published: September 2020

If you are having dificulties with accessing this document, please


Another couple of Pictures Shown Below That I can see, But "Everyone on The Web" are being blocked from seeing within The "Google Sheet"; they are also Placed here, to make sure that the information is conveyed as accurately, and in as understandable a fashion as possible. I'm not sure why they are being blocked: The Pictures have been modified (edited) in order to make as accurate as possible "Estimates of The Number of Panels as shown in The Report Referenced: As well as for estimating the size of "The Block Layouts" used in That Report.
"The Layout"

It Looks Like there are 35 x 15 x 18 off 1 sq.m Solar Panelsin a Block or = 9450.00 sq.m... Thus For The array of 5 Blocks without the Uncovered Environmental Area there Will be :- (9450 x 5) = 47250.00 sq.m...

This Area of Solar Cells, in The Block of 5, is Then Used to Determine How Many Blocks of 5 Units (without the Vacant Area) but with the estimated additional Area as Shown to allow for Installation, Maintenance access and Replacement should that prove Necessary; will be required. This is Calculated by dividing The total Number of sq. m required for the Particular Efficiency Solar Cell Type Used. This Number of Blocks Required is Then used as a Multiplicand of The Total area of The “5 Block” array,without the “Environmental or Uncovered Area”: ,
...This Gives The Total Area of Land Required for The Panels.

The Estimate of The Area of the “Array of 5 Blocks” was done using The Picture, as Edited, below here.

In The “Google Sheet” below, which contains two active sheets, you will have to scroll to the bottom of the Sheet, until you can see the two Sheet Names, and then select “SunCable”… 

I wish I could get it to open on that Sheet but I’m having difficulty with the Idiosyncracies of “Google Sheets”… But, while You are there, you will, if you  just pass your mouse over the top of the Sheet Names, see the Horizontal Scroll bar!... If you move the bar just a fraction to the right say, then it should stay active, while you scroll back up!... Good luck!


Insolation on Earth's Surface

Irradiance, or Insolation, on Earth's surface

Average annual solar radiation arriving at the top of the Earth's atmosphere is roughly 1361 W/m2. The Sun's rays are attenuated as they pass through the atmosphere, leaving maximum normal surface irradiance at approximately 1000 W /m2 at sea level on a clear day. When 1361 W/m2 is arriving above the atmosphere (when the sun is at the zenith in a cloudless sky), direct sun is about 1050 W/m2, and global radiation on a horizontal surface at ground level is about 1120 W/m2

The latter figure includes radiation scattered or re-emitted by atmosphere and surroundings. The actual figure varies with the Sun's angle and atmospheric circumstances.

Ignoring clouds, the daily average insolation for the Earth is approximately 6 kWh/m2 = 21.6 MJ/m2.

This figure shows the solar radiation spectrum for direct light at both the top of the Earth's atmosphere (represented by yellow area) and at sea level (red area). The sun produces light with a distribution similar to what would be expected from a 5778 K (5505 °C) blackbody, which is approximately the sun's surface temperature. As light passes through the atmosphere, some is absorbed by gases with specific absorption bands. Additional light is redistributed by Raleigh scattering, which is responsible for the atmosphere's blue color. These curves are based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Terrestrial Reference Spectra, which are standards adopted by the photovoltaics industry to ensure consistent test conditions and are similar to the light that could be expected in North America. Regions for ultraviolet, visible and infrared light are indicated.  (Ref:- Credit Wikipedia)

Now we will see the area of land that is required for Power Generation using Solar Photo Voltaics.
The figures in the Table are Public on the Web from The Power Supplier...
----- Interestingly The Suppliers always Talk about The Number of Residences that can be supplied!... 
===== Funny that!... I thought that the Idea was for Individual Houses to Put Their Own Solar Panels on their Own Roofs and leave the Big Solar Farms to Supply The Replacement Power For The Coal and Nuclear Plants that "The Green Industrial Complex" has Convinced Governments can be Shut Down, as The Power generation to replace them can be supplied using Solar, Wind and Bio-Fuel Power Generation... See Michael Moore This is The "Approved!" version 

There is a Horizontal Scroll Bar, but to see it one has to scroll to the bottom of the Sheet, and then, just above the "Sheet 1, Sheet Two, Sheet 3 Tabs" if you don't see it click and it will appear... One can then scroll back up the page and it will remain available... unless you scroll too far up and the Above Paragraph starts to scroll... One has to be a bit careful... Otherwise one has to scroll down and repeat the operation to get the Horizontal Scroll Bar!

Generation - MW·h - of Topaz Solar

While I've Got your Attention
"I Love a Bit of Satire"
"Manufacturing & Energy Sector"
"Hobbled by Thorium"

YouTube Video


This is where to put it

"Here It Is 95"